Our team

Our team

Marianne Baernholdt, Ph.D., M.P.H., RN, FAAN

Nursing Alumni Endowed Professor
Department of Adult Health and Nursing Systems

Marianne_Baernholdt

1100 East Leigh Street, Room 3001H
Box 980567
Richmond, VA 23298-0567

Phone: (804) 828-5175
Email: mbaernholdt@vcu.edu

TEACHING:

My teaching is guided by the famous philosopher and my fellow Dane Soren Kirkegaard who said about teaching: “Instruction begins when you, the teacher, learn from the learner; put yourself in his place so that you may understand . . . what he learns and the way he understands it.” I teach a variety of subjects related to quality and safety, leadership, methods for research and quality improvement, and health policy.

RESEARCH:

My research focus on quality and safety in global rural areas across the health care continuum.

SERVICE:

I serve on state, national and international committees and boards in the area of quality and safety and/or rural health.

EDUCATION

  • Diploma Bispebjerg School of Nursing, Denmark
    Nursing
  • BSN Pace University, New York, NY
    Nursing
  • MPH Columbia University, New York, NY
    International Health
  • MSN Columbia University, New York, NY
    Critical Care
  • PhD University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA
    Nursing
  • Postdoc University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC

AWARDS/HONORS

  • The Anthony J. Jannetti Award for Extraordinary Contributions to Health Care, "The Tony Award", the Academy of Medical-Surgical Nursing 2018
  • Nursing Alumni Endowed Distinguished Professor 2015
  • Fellow of the American Academy of Nursing 2013
  • Faculty Fellow, Center for Global Health, University of Virginia 2013
  • Outstanding Faculty Award from CNL class of 2011 2011
  • Outstanding Faculty Research Publication Award 2011
  • Ann Pollok Heming’s Teaching Fellow 2009-2010
  • Excellence in Teaching Award, University of Virginia, 2009
  • School of Nursing Alumni Association
  • Nightingale Research Award, University of Virginia, School of Nursing 2008
  • National Institute of Nursing Research Career Development Award (K01) 2007-2010
  • National Institute of Nursing Research Postdoctoral Fellowship (T32) 2005-2006

SELECTED RESEARCH FUNDING

  • 2016-2018: D11HP29865, 10% effort (Co-I/Evaluator), Principal Investigator: Tamara Zurakowski, $407,938. Title: PRimary care Options to Maximize Opportunities to Transform Education in Nursing (PROMOTE-Nursing). Sponsor: Health Resources and Services Administration. Project dates: 7/16-6/18.
  • 2015-2016: Intramural Grants Program (IGP), Principal Investigator Mary Lynn Davis-Ajami. 5% in-kind effort (Co-investigator). Safe Kidney Care-national adverse safety events: SKC-NNASE 

    Sponsor: Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Nursing

  • 2015-2016: Quest Global Impact Award. Principal Investigator: Marianne Baernholdt. Teaching and Researching Quality of End of Life Care in the US and England.

    Sponsor: Virginia Commonwealth University. Global Education Office.

  • 2014-2018: Principal Investigator, Care Interventions and Quality of Care in Rural and Urban Nursing Units Funded by the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality. R01 HS023147, Total Cost: $985,803. Project dates: 8/14-7/18.
  • 2014-2017: Co-Investigator, Creating a Culture of Safety: The University of Virginia Curriculum for Interprofessional Education for Patient Safety and Quality Improvement. Funded by Health Resources and Services Administration HRSA-14-0662014 Advanced Education Nursing Program. [Principal Investigator: C Kennedy]. Total cost: $1,081,087. Project dates: 8/14-7/17.
  • 2012-2014: Program faculty, The Water and Health in Limpopo Innovations Fellowship Program. Funded by the National Institute of Health, Fogarty International Center 1D43TW009359-01. [Principal Investigator: R Guerrant]. Total cost: $1,75 million. Project dates: 9/12- 8/17.
  • 2012-2014: Program faculty, Research Experiences for Undergraduates: Water, Society, and Health. Funded by the National Science Foundation. EEC 1156999 [Principal Investigator: J. A. Smith]. Total cost: $308,000. Project dates: 7/12-6/15.
  • 2007-2011: Principal Investigator, Impact of Nurse Work Environment on Rural Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes. Funded by the National Institute of Nursing Research K01 NR0105556. Total cost: $257,804. Project dates: 9/07-5/11
  • 2010-2012: Co-Principal Investigator, Palliative care partnerships in South Africa. Funded by the Center for International Programs, University of Virginia. Total cost: $20,000 and $7816 Project dates: 12/10-12/11and 1/12-8/12.

SELECTED PUBLICATIONS

Articles Published in Professional Journals
Note: [R] indicates peer reviewed; [I] indicates invited; [D] indicates data-based; [S] indicates student-mentored.
  • Baernholdt, M. & Shellian, B. (2018).  Global rural nursing practice. In Friberg, E.E. & Creasia, J.L. (Eds). Conceptual Foundations. The Bridge to Professional Nursing Practice, 8th edition. Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri.
  • Høgh, A., Baernholdt, M, & Clausen T. Impact of workplace bullying on missed nursing care and quality of care in the eldercare Sector. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health [R,D]
  • Hogh, A., Clausen, T., Bickmann, L., Hansen, A., Conway, P, & Baernholdt, M. Long-term consequences of workplace bullying for individuals, organisations and society. In D’Cruz, P. & Noronha, E. (Eds). Workplace Bullying. Pathways of Job-related Negative Behaviour. Springer.
  • Baernholdt, M., Dunton, N, Hughes, R. G., Stones, P. W, & White K. W. (2018) Quality Measures – A Stakeholder Analysis. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 33(2):149-156 [R,D]
  • Clement, J., Khushalani, & Baernholdt, M. (April 10, 2018 Epub ahead of print) Urban-rural differences in Skilled Nursing Facility rehospitalization rates. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association [R,D]
  • Baernholdt, M., Hinton, I., Yan, G., Xin, W., Cramer, E., & Dunton, N. (January 16, 2018 Epub ahead of print). Does Location matter? Fall rates in urban and rural nursing units. Journal of Nursing Care Quality [R,D]
  • Bachnick, S. Ausserhofer, D., Baernholdt, M., & Simon, M. (November 24, 2017 Epub ahead of print) Patient-centered care, nurse work environment and implicit rationing of nursing care in Swiss acute care hospitals: a cross-sectional multi-center study. International Journal of Nursing Studies [R,D,S]
  • Baernholdt, M., Dunton, N, Hughes, R. G., Stones, P. W, & White K. W. (2018) Quality Measures – A Stakeholder Analysis. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 33(2):149-156 [R,D]
  • Bailey, C; Orr, S., Hewison, A. & Baernholdt, M. (2017) Learning About End-of-Life Care in Nursing - A Global Classroom Educational Innovation. Journal of Nursing Education, 26 (11), 688-691 [R,D]
  • Mattos, M.K., Burke, L.E., Baernholdt, M., Hu, L., Nilsen, M.L., & Lingler, J.H. (Jan 1 2017 Epub ahead of print). Perceived Social Determinants of Health among Older, Rural-Dwelling Adults with Early-Stage Cognitive Impairment. Dementia: the International Journal of Social Research and Practice,  [R,D, S]
  • Baernholdt, M., Hinton, I.D., Yan, G., Xin, W., Cramer, E., & Dunton, N. (2017). A National Comparison of Rural/Urban Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rates. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 22(2).

     http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-22-2017/No2-May-2017/Articles-Previous-Topics/National-Comparison-Rural-Urban.html [R,D]

  • Crego, N., Baernholdt, M. & Merwin, E. (2017) Differences in Pediatric Non-Interventional Radiology Procedural Sedation Practices and Adverse Events by Registered Nurse and Physicians. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 35, 129-133 [R,D,S]
  • Cross, S. & Baernholdt, M. (In press) Identifying Factors for Worker Motivation in Zambia's Rural Health Facilities. The Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. [R,D,S]
  • Campbell, C. & Baernholdt, M. (In press) Community health workers’ palliative care learning needs and training in rural Mpumalanga, South Africa. The Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
  • Renda, S., Baernholdt, M., & Becker, K. (E-published ahead of print 10 12 2015) An evaluation of a worksite diabetes education program for employees with Diabetes at a large urban medical center. Workplace Health & Safety. [R,D,S]
  • Mainz, H, Baernholdt, M., Ramlau-Hansen, C. H., & Brink, O. (E-published ahead of print 9 10 2015) Comparison and Validation of the Nurse Practice Environment in Denmark and the US. International Nursing Review [R,D,S]
  • Cary, M., Baernholdt, M., & Merwin, E (E-published ahead of print 3 27 2015) Changes in Payment Regulation and Acute Care Use for Total Hip Replacement: Trends in Length of Stay, Costs, and Discharge, 1997-2012. Rehabilitation Nursing Journal [R,D,S]
  • Cary, M., Baernholdt, M., Anderson, R. & Merwin, E., (E-published ahead of print 1 13 2015) Performance-based Outcomes of Inpatient Rehabilitation Facilities Treating Hip Fracture Patients in the United States. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. [R,D,S]
  • Baernholdt, M., Campbell, C., Hinton, I. D., Yan, G., & Lewis E (2015). Quality of Hospice Care: A comparison between rural and urban residents. Journal of Nursing Care Quality. 30(3), 247-253 [R, D]
  • Lewis, E. Baernholdt, M., Yan, G. & Guterbock, T.G. (2015). Relationship of adverse events and support to RN burnout. Journal of Nursing Care Quality. 30(2), 144-152 [R, D, S]
  • Baernholdt, M., Malpass, J., Hinton, I.D., Yan, G, & Bratt, M. (2014). A comparison of quality of care in critical access hospitals and other small rural hospitals. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care, 14(2), 3-31. [R, D]
  • Parcells, C. & Baernholdt, M. (2014). Developing a global curriculum in a School of Nursing. Journal of Nursing Education, 53(12):692-695. [R, D]
  • Campbell, C. L., Baernholdt, M., Dillingham, R, & Plews-Ogan, J. (2014).
    A tripartite interprofessional collaboration in Limpopo province: Community health worker training in diabetes and hypertension. Annals of Global Health. 80(3), 236. DOI:10.1016/j.aogh.2014.08.196
  • Baernholdt, M. (2014). Educating Culturally Competent Nurses at Home and Abroad. Diversity & Democracy. Journal for the Association of American Colleges and Universities, Spring Issue. [I]
  • Bratt, M. M., Baernholdt, M., & Pruszynski, J.E. (2014). Are Rural and Urban Newly Licensed Nurses Different? Results from a Nurse Residency Program. Journal of Nursing Management, 22(6), 779-791 [R, D]
  • Baernholdt, M., Jennings, B. & Lewis, E. (2013). A Pilot Study of Staff Nurses' Perceptions of Factors that Influence Quality of Care in Critical Access Hospitals. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 28(4), 352-359. [R, D]
  • Baernholdt, M., Drake, E., Maron, F., & Neymark, K. (2013). Fostering internalization: an American-Danish semester-long undergraduate nursing student exchange program. International Nursing Review, 60(2), 221-227. [R]
  • Epstein, E.G., Rovnyak, V., Miles, A. & Baernholdt, M. (2013). Parents’ perceptions of continuity of care in the NICU: Preliminary testing of an instrument and implications for the nurse-parent relationship. Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing, 27(2), 168-175. [R, D]
  • Campbell, C.L., Baernholdt, M., Yan, G., Hinton, I., & Lewis, E. (2013). Racial/ethnic perspectives on the quality of hospice care. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, 30(4), 347-353. [R, D]
  • Rigney, D. & Baernholdt, M. (2013) Using problem solving for better health nursing (PSBH) in a clinical nurse leader program, Journal of Professional Nursing, 29, e10–e13 [R]
  • Struwe, J. H., Baernholdt, M., Nørholm, V. & Lind, J. (2013) Organization of nursing: an important factor for continuity of care for stroke patients. Journal of Nursing Management, 21(1), 141-152. [R,D]
  • Keim-Malpass, J., Baernholdt, M., Erickson, J.M., Ropka, M.E., Schroen, A.T., Steeves, R.H. (2013) Blogging through cancer: Young women’s persistent problems shared online. Cancer Nursing. 36 (2), 163-172. [R, D, S]
  • Lewis, E. J., Baernholdt, M., & Hamric, A. B. (2013). Nurses’ experience of medical error, an integrative literature review. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 28(2), 153-161. [R, D, S]
Reports
  • Schur, C., Cheung, K, Radford, A., Slifkin, R., & Baernholdt, M. (2007). 340B drug pricing program results of a survey of participating rural hospitals. Report to the Federal Office of Rural Health Policy. [D]
  • Radford, A., Slifkin, R., Baernholdt, M., Schur, C., & Cheung, K. (2007). 340B drug pricing program results of a survey of eligible but non-participating rural hospitals. Report to the Federal Office of Rural Health Policy. [D]
Book Chapters
  • Baernholdt, M. & Shellian, B. (forthcoming 2018).  Global rural nursing practice. In Friberg, E.E. & Creasia, J.L. (Eds). Conceptual Foundations. The Bridge to Professional Nursing Practice, 8th edition. Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri.
  • Hogh, A., Clausen, T., Bickmann, L., Hansen, A., Conway, P, & Baernholdt, M. (forthcoming 2018). Long-term consequences of workplace bullying for individuals, organisations and society. In D’Cruz, P. & Noronha, E. (Eds). Workplace Bullying. Pathways of Job-related Negative Behaviour. Springer.
  • Baernholdt M. (2017). Rural Health. In J. Fitzpatrick & M. W. Kazer (Eds). Encyclopedia of Nursing Research. 4th ed. Springer Publishing Company: NYC 
  • Baernholdt, M., Schexnayder, J. & Winston, M. (2016). Global rural nursing practice. In Friberg, E.E. & Creasia, J.L. (Eds). Conceptual Foundations. The Bridge to Professional Nursing Practice, 7th edition. Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri.
Interviews

Selected Presentations

Selected International and National Presentations
  • June 2017 Baernholdt, M. Two approaches to increase our understanding of how to improve healthcare quality: Longitudinal analyses of secondary data and implementation of an interdisciplinary quality improvement program. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Center for Quality Improvement and Patient Safety (invited)
  • March 2017 Baernholdt, M. The Roles of Nurses in Providing High Quality and Safe Healthcare, Keynote at the 1st Gorontalo International Nursing Conference, Gorontalo, Indonesia (invited)
  • March 2017 Baernholdt, M. Writing for International Publication. Workshop at the 1st Gorontalo International Nursing Conference, Gorontalo, Indonesia (invited)
  • March 2017 Baernholdt M. Issues in Quality of Care in the US: Comparisons of Urban and Rural Health Care, Institute presentation at the University of Hasanudin, Makassar Indonesia (invited)
  • June 2016 Baernholdt, M. Primary Care indicators in the US: Consequences and Challenges with Decisions, Definitions, Measurements and Use. Presentation, Symposium for primary care health care providers and researchers at the Institut Universitaire de Medicine et Sociale Preventive, CHUV et Universitaire of Lausanne in Lausanne, Switzerland (invited).
  • March 2016 Baernholdt, M. Location and quality of care: comparisons of urban and rural health care. Institute Presentation, University of Birmingham, England (invited).
  • March 2016 Baernholdt, M. The Langston Center for Quality, Safety, and Innovation: Enhancing Quality and Safety in Health Care, School Seminar, University of Birmingham, England (invited)
  • May 2015 Miltner, R., Baernholdt, M., & Jennings, B. Doctoral Quality and Safety Education: Scholarship Activities to Advance Improvement Science. 2015 Quality and Safety Education in Nursing (QSEN) National Forum: 10 Years and Going Strong, San Diego, California.
  • May 2015 Biernacki, P., Jallo, N., Baernholdt, M. Small, L., Hills, R., Shockey, D. & Hamric, A. Innovative Integration of Quality and Safety Competencies into Curricular Design and Teaching Strategies of a DNP Program. 2015 Quality and Safety Education in Nursing (QSEN) National Forum: 10 Years and Going Strong, San Diego, California.
  • May 2015 Hogh, A., Baernholdt, M., & Clausen, T. Impact of workplace bullying on missed care and care quality in the elder-care sector. The 11th International Conference on Occupational Stress and Health. Work, Stress and Health 2015, Atlanta, Georgia.
  • September 2014 Baernholdt, M. Hvor er Sygeplejen? Indblik i elektroniske patient journaler og andre databaser i USA [Where is Nursing? State of the Science in the US Electronic Health Records and databases]. Keynote at the Danish Nurse Council’s Documentation conference 2014. Copenhagen, Denmark, (invited).
  • July 2014 Baernholdt, M, Campbell, C., Hinton, I., Yan, G., & Lewis, E. Quality of Hospice Care: A Comparison between Rural and Urban Residents. Presentation at the 2014 International Rural Health & Rural Nursing Research Conference, Bozeman, Montana
  • July 2014 Baernholdt, M. Quality of Care in Rural Hospitals in the United States. Presentation at the 2nd International Conference of the School of Health Sciences, University of Venda 2014: Towards Achieving 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), University of Venda, Thohoyandou, South Africa.
  • May 2014 Baernholdt, M. & Plews-Ogan, M. Interprofessional Education: Talking to Patients and Families After a Medical Error. Presentation at the QSEN Forum, Baltimore, Maryland.
  • November 2013: Baernholdt, M, Hinton, I., Yan, G., & Rachmawaty, R. The Nurse Work Environment and Nurse Outcomes in Rural and Urban Nursing Units. Presentation at the International Nursing Administration Research Conference, Baltimore, Maryland.
  • June 2013: Baernholdt, M. Quality of Care in Rural Hospitals. Presentation for the American Nurse Association’s National Center for Nursing Quality, Silver Springs, Maryland (invited).
  • May 2013: Baernholdt, M. Rural Nurse Residency Programs. Presentation at the International Council of Nurses Congress, Rural and Remote Nurses Network, Melbourne, Australia (invited).
  • May 2013: Baernholdt, M., Campbell, C., Dillingham, R., Plews-Ogan, J., & Plews-Ogan M. A tripartite collaboration in South Africa to improve health care and education. Presentation at the International Council of Nurses Congress, Melbourne, Australia.
  • May 2013: Baernholdt, M, Hinton, I., Yan, G., & Rachmawaty, R. A comparison of care interventions and outcomes for pressure ulcers and fall rates in rural and urban nursing units. Presentation at the National Rural Health Association’s 36th Annual Conference, Louisville, Kentucky.
Regional Presentations
  • April 2018 Baernholdt M. Rural Nursing Practice: Challenges and Rewards. The Judy C Kandzari Memorial Lecture at University of West Virginia, School of Nursing, Morgantown, West Virginia (invited)
  • March 2018 Baernholdt, M. Expanding Nursing Science in Global Rural Healthcare Quality. Keynote at the Southern Nursing Research Society’s 32nd Annual Conference 2018, Atlanta, Georgia (invited)
  • March 2015 Baernholdt, M. Quality and Safety: The Role of the Nurse Practitioner” Keynote at the 2015 Virginia Council of Nurse Practitioners (VCNP) Annual Conference, Roanoke Virginia (invited) 
  • February 2015 Baernholdt, M. Hinton, I, Yan, G. & Rachmawaty, R. Pressure Ulcer Prevention: How are we doing? Presentation at the Southern Nursing Research Society’s 29th Annual Conference 2015, Tampa, Florida
  • September 2014 Baernholdt, M. Does context matter? Work environment and quality of care in rural and urban hospitals. Presentation at the Virginia Nurses Association Education Day: Navigating the Future of Healthcare: Work Environment, Workforce, & Public Policy, Richmond, Virginia (invited).
Local Presentations
  • January 2015: Baernholdt, M. Context Does Matter: Comparisons of Urban and Rural Quality of Care. Department of Healthcare Policy and Research, Virginia Commonwealth University.
  • September 2013: Haller, T., Baernholdt, M., & Jones, R. Current Issues in Global Health Policy: Stories from 2013 World Health Assembly and ICN Congress.
Poster Presentations
  • June 2018 Baernholdt, M., Hinton, I., Yan, G., Cramer, E., & Dunton, N. Longitudinal Effects of Preventive Care Interventions on Pressure Ulcers in Rural and Urban Nursing Units. AcademyHealth 2018 Annual Research Meeting, Seattle, WA.
  • June 2018 Baernholdt, M., Feldman, M., Dow, A., Mobley, D., Harvey, D., & Murphy, J. An interprofessional quality improvement training program that improves educational and quality outcomes. AAMC 2018 Integrating Quality Conference: A Decade of Progress Bridging Health Care Quality and Education, Arlington, VA.
  • June 2017 Bachnick, S. Ausserhofer, D., Baernholdt, M, & Simon, M. Patient-centered care is associated with nurses’ work environment and rationing of nursing care in Swiss acute care hospitals. AcademyHealth 2017 Annual Research Meeting, New Orleans, LA
  • June 2017 Clement, J., Khushalani, J. & Baernholdt, M. Urban-rural differences in nursing home rehospitalization rates. AcademyHealth 2017 Annual Research Meeting, New Orleans, LA
  • May 2017 Baernholdt, M., Feldman, M., Davis-Ajami, M. L., Alan Dow, A., Dale Harvey, D., Mazmanian, P., Mobley, D. S., Murphy, J., & Watts, C.  Increasing patient safety through nurse-physician collaboration: developing leadership quality improvement capacity. International Council of Nurses Congress. Nurses at the forefront transforming care. Barcelona, Spain
  • June 2016 Baernholdt, M., Hinton, I. D., Yan, G., Xin, W., Cramer, E., & Dunton, N. Differences in pressure ulcer rates according to geographic location in a national sample of nursing units. AcademyHealth 2016 Annual Research Meeting, Boston, MA.
  • April 2016 Baernholdt, M. Creating a Center to Enhance Innovations in Quality and Safety Education, Research, Practice, Organization, and Policy. International Forum on Quality & Safety in Healthcare 2016, Gothenburg, Sweden.
  • January 2016 Brashers, V., Quatrara, B., Tullman, D., Baernholdt, M., Owens, J., & Kennedy, C. Creating a Culture of Safety: The University of Virginia Curriculum for Interprofessional Education for Patient Safety and Quality Improvement. AACN Doctoral Education Conference 2016, Naples, Florida
  • October 2015 Baernholdt, M., Yan, G., Hinton, I. & Xin, W. Does Location Matter? Fall Rates in Urban and Rural Nursing Units. 2015 AHRQ Research Conference 2015, Washington DC.
  • October 2015 Baernholdt, M., Yan, G., Hinton, I. & Xin, W. Does Location Matter? Fall Rates in Urban and Rural Nursing Units. 2015 AHRQ Research Conference 2015, Washington DC.
  • May 2015 Baernholdt M. & Jennings, B.M. Looking at Patient Falls in Hospitals: Administrative Tick Marks or Staff Nurse Turmoil? The 11th International Conference on Occupational Stress and Health. Work, Stress and Health 2015, Atlanta, Georgia.
  • May 2014: Campbell, C., Baernholdt, M., Plews-Ogan, J., Plews-Ogan, M. & Dillingham, R. A tripartite interprofessional collaboration in Limpopo province: Community health worker training in diabetes and hypertension. Abstract published in the Conference proceedings of 5th Annual Conference of the Consortium for Universities of Global Health. 
  • February 2014: Baernholdt, M., Campbell, C., Dillingham, R., Maluleke, M., Netshikweta, L., Plews-Ogan, J., Plews-Ogan, M., Sebola, V., & Shin, C. Improving health through education and collaboration: a partnership between two universities and a health department. Poster presentation at Nursing Leadership in Global health 2014, Nashville, Tennessee.
  • March 2013: Thompson-Heisterman, A., Richardson, J., Netshandama, V., Dillingham, R., Louis, G., Baernholdt, M. & Firehock, K. Learning from our partners: The use of Appreciative Inquiry to discover capacity and nurture community- centric solutions to water and health challenges in rural Limpopo Province. Poster presented at The Consortium of Universities for Global Health’s 4th Annual Conference, Washington DC.
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